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tv   Slave Rebellion of 1841  CSPAN  September 12, 2015 11:00am-12:01pm EDT

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virginia ruled it was unconstitutional to prohibit interracial marriage. peter examines the context and legacy of loving v virginia and how it affected similar legal challenges. get our complete schedule at c-span.org. in november, 1841, the ship creole was bound for new orleans when slaves aboard rebelled and diverted the ship to the bahamas , then under british control. coming up next, arthur downey, author of "the creole affair: the slave rebelllion that led the u.s. and great britain to the brink of war." at atails the incident legal and diplomatic battle that ensued. the national archives in washington posted this program. it is just under an hour. >> our topic for today is the -- "the creole affair -- "the
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creole affair: the slave rebelllion that led the u.s. and great britain to the brink of war." has at various times in his eclectic career been a lawyer and officer in two major corporations, a diplomat, and a former staff member of the national security council. years, he taught international law at georgetown university law center. "civil wars book lawyers" was published. his current book, "the creole affair," was published late last year. and he is currently in the final stages of dealing with his next book about the cold war. based on meat and welcoming arthur downey to the national -- please join me in welcoming arthur downey to the national archives. >> [applause] mr. downey: good afternoon.
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us, american history begins with the american revolution and the drafting of the constitution, then perhaps makes a brief stop at the war of 1812, then we rush on to the civil war. as a result, that period in between is sort of a blackhole. however, in that period, in that blackhole, the took place the most successful slave revolt in american history. one that led the united states and the british to the brink of their third war. , aant to tell you that story very interesting story. cobra 25th, 1841, the creol e left the dock in richmond, virginia with tobacco, supplies, and crew, and others.
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the captain was in charge. he had brought his wife, his four-year-old daughter, and his 15-year-old niece with him. he had a crew of eight and three guests, passengers, who got free passage to new orleans in exchange for being guards. the creole sailed down the river to the atlantic ocean. in addition to tobacco and supplies, the creole also carried human cargo. it had 135 slaves on board. ales were in the forward hold at tonight. slaves that were criminals were in the past hold -- the aft hold. they cook for the slaves was a young slave whose name was
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madison washing. remember that name. we will see him again. on the night of november 2 -- november 7, the creole was about 200 miles northeast of miami. it was nighttime. stopped.basically it was dark, except for one lantern in the front. and all of a sudden, medicine washington jumps out of the ladies -- the female aft hold, another slaves jumped with him, one of the guards tried to stop them. the other slaves stabbed him more than 20 times, ritually decapitated him, threw him overboard. they then went after the captain. , left himm repeatedly almost forgot. there were 19 slaves that led the rebellion on the creole that night.
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though slaves then came back to the captain's corridors, "their trunks, got dressed up, ate, broke into the brandy cabinet, and drank and had a wonderful time. madison washington wanted the crew to sail to liberia. one of the guards, however, said that he used to be a mate and knew how to navigate. and he said, you can't get to liberia from here, we don't have enough food or water. but in exchange for my life, i can navigate us to the bahamas. medicine washington said, ok, that is fine. on november 9, the creole entered the mouth of the channel mile from theut a city itself. a bohemian pilot came on board to pilot the ship into the harbor. and he looked around and told the slaves, we have no slavery
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here, you guys are free. on the north side of the harbor was hog island. today we know it as the atlantis to resort -- atlantis resort on paradise island. then the harbor master came for a routine inspection. the first mate, whose name was gifford, jumped on board the harbor master's ship and said, take me into the city, i have to see the american consular officer because we just had murders on board our ship. on board the ship, you can imagine the emotions that crackled within everybody. those 19 slaves who led the revolt certainly had earned their freedom, and they must have felt especially satisfied. but they were probably also word that the british might jail them, or worse, return them to
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the united states. the passengers and crew, needless to say, or terrified, but hoped that the nightmare was nearly over. freeze that picture in your mind. and let's step back and look at the united states at that time, the economy, the politics of it, the president and congress. let's look at u.s. and british relationships, and let's look at what the bahamas were like that. first, the united states. it was a lot smaller than it was today. there was only 26 stars in the american flag. the united states population was about 17 million. including more than 2 million slaves. about half the size of great britain at the time. boomednomy in the 1830's . railroads and canals and steamboats moved people and goods all over the country. in best example is that
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1829, when andrew jackson came to be sworn in as president, he came in a horse-drawn carriage from tennessee. presidencyter his when he returned to tennessee, he returned on a train pulled by a steam engine. the technological change was that dramatic. then, as so often happens as we know these days, the classic boom and bust cycle kicked in. the panict was called of 1837. it was a great depression, a great recession. the banks failed. states defaulted on their loans. it was required for the united states congress to pass our first bankruptcy laws. it was a terrible time. a young lawyer in springfield, illinois, who had just got admitted, found that his practice was dominated by collection cases.
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politically, by 1820, the division within the united states was no longer big state against most they. rather, it was free state against slave state. the missouri compromise of 1820 maintained that exact balance of free states and slave states by free stateaine as a and missouri as a slave state. 183revolt and virginia and -- in1831 and the abolition -- in 1831 and the abolition of slavery deeply worried the southerners. there was general -- in the north, there was great agitation to move on to abolition. this is a photo of the american anti-slavery society that was
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founded in 1833. the united states and the u.k. band the international -- banned the international slave trade in 1808. this action created a massive redistribution of slaves within united states. the upper from southeast, from delaware and maryland and virginia, down to the new vast lands in the southwest, to mississippi, alabama, louisiana. richmond of a slave in was determined by a price of a slave in new orleans. slaves in these delaware, maryland, virginia, etc. were sold in the fall after they had brought in the harvest. and they were sent around to new alliance so that they would arrive in a will it -- arrive in new orleans in the spring to work for the planting.
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it is no accident then that the third-largest city in the united states was new orleans. after new york and baltimore. now let's talk about the presidency. buren was president in 1837. he had a great resume. he was off to a good start. , as james famously said, is the economy stupid. and the great depression, the panic of 1837, continued. in 1840convention selected a war hero from ohio as its presidential nominee, william henry harrison. famous for winning the battle of to the canoe. -- the battle of tippecanoe. they needed a southerner to balance the ticket, so they selected john tyler.
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1840 was theof first modern political campaign. political slogans were used for the first time. to begin new and tyler, two -- too, youe and tyler, have heard. and ok clubs were formed. and that is how the term, ok, came into our national vocabulary. president harrison had six -- i'm sorry, needless to say, harrison won the huge majority and became president. president harrison had six cabinet members against 15 cabinet members today. was danielmember webster, the secretary of state. he was the greatest lawyer at the time in the united states. he had argued 170 cases before the supreme court, a record
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never equaled since then. he had served in the house and the senate. and he and henry clay founded the wig party in 1833. webster worked hard with the president-elect to get harrison to limit is enormous inaugural address. in it went on for 90 minutes a snowstorm here in washington on march 4, 1841. harrison caught a cold, doctors fednd the him -- [indiscernible] -- and brandy, and he died. on april 4. the secretary of state webster sent his own son, fletcher, on horseback down to tyler's plantation in virginia to announce that he was now the president. however, there was uncertainty about john tyler's status.
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was the acting president? did he have full powers? this had never happened before. a president had never died in office. it began to be viewed with suspicion by wigs in the congress. they fought over the national bank legislation. a saturday,1841, on five of the wig cabinet members walked into the white house and each one of them, one after the other, resigned. daniel webster stayed. tyler wanted him to stay because he needed webster to help him with battles with the wigs in the congress, and he was also worried about relations with great britain. and he, tyler, was an anglophone -- anglophob. among other reasons, daniel webster as a lawyer had a wonderful client and the u.k. --
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the great financial house, which dominated european and american finances for years. and daniel webster was the american lawyer for the brothers. at that time, anti-slavery pressure was building and building. the democrats controlled the house, and in 1836 adopted what was called the gaggle -- gag rule. rule wasr against the john's anti-atoms -- john quincy adams, former president of the united states, who, since 1831, was a member of the house. ruleught against the gag over and over, and it was still in place in 1841 and 1842. 1839,preme court, in
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african slaves violently revolted on a spanish slave ship off cuba, the amistad. you all know the spielberg movie in 1997. those free to slaves ended up in the united states and the united -- supreme court had to decide the fate of those slaves. case was argued in february of 1941. john quincy adams, the former president and a house member, argued the case for the slaves. it was his fifth and last appearance before the supreme court. hopkinsovie, anthony played john quincy adams. in march -- that is the gag rule, i am sorry, i should have told you that. an march 1841, joseph story --
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7-1 opinion. this case did not involve the united states because the slaves were -- were -- were freed before they came to the united states. it was a spanish ship, etc. but it was important for us in this discussion because it focused national attention on slavery and the mutinous revolt on a slave ship on the high seas, just what happened with the creole. now let's talk a little bit about british-u.s. relationships . great britain at that time was the superpower of the world. for example, in purely military terms, great britain had 100 ships. united states had 15. great britain had colonies in canada, australia, and new zealand. they had naval bases in gibraltar. they had trading centers in hong kong, singapore.
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groundklands became the -- crown colony in 1840. in 1839, the british invaded afghanistan. more thaname with 20,000 troops, and they had 30,000 camels to carry their supplies, including 300 cases of wine for the officers' mess. but the british were defeated in afghanistan in 1841. it was a jihadist against the british -- a jihad against the british. they were defeated and they were massacred. it's thousands -- 8000 of the british forces were massacred as they retreated in january of 1842. this is important for the
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resolution of this mess. the united states saw the united kingdom as the center of evil. fostering abolition, trying to undercut cotton prices by having a special relationship with the independent republic of texas, a great cotton producer, and they thought the south -- the south, anyway, thought they really wanted to destroy the american economy. remember the war of 1812 was only a generation away when british admiral -- burned washington and every household in america remembered it. those of you from maryland, look at your license plates. it still says the war of 1812. but there were 4 specific problems in u.s.-british relationships. first, in 1837, there was a rebellion in canada. some americans went north to help the rebels. 1837, british
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andtias crossed the niagara burned the american merchant ship, the caroline. pressure over the may grifols. imagine that. -- pushed her over the niagara falls. imagine that. the british said, hey, self defense. you americans crossed the line and came up. . -- crossed the line and came up to. three years later, late in 1840, a deputy sheriff from upper canada, whose name was macleod, was passing through new york state. and stupidly, he starts breaking about his role in burning the caroline and pushing it over the falls. not surprisingly, new york state authorities arrested macleod and
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tried him for murder. the british said, macleod has no personal responsibility. he was part of our militia, but you can go after him personally. this was a british activity. he was following orders. the british said, if macleod is found guilty, there will be war. and of story. -- end of story. fortunately, in october 1841, about a month before the creole enter the harbor, a jury in new york state said macleod was not guilty. whew. but the nerves were still tense. thethird problem related to main-canadian border -- the maine-canadian border. it's border with canada was never fully defined.
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and there were skirmishes. it is called the aroostook war. ,ther states passed resolutions we will send our militia's degraff to those awful people in canada. thoseitias to go after awful people in canada. the last problem related to the naval presence off the coast of africa, off the west coast of africa. both the british and the americans had naval patrols off the coast of africa to intercede in illegal slaving. the british -- they were the monster country, the great superpower -- fairly freely boarded american ships to see if there was -- if they were really american or were they some other kinds of pirates were just wasted an american flag. for americans who thought the
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war of 1812, and a large part because of something like that, this was a serious problem. there were also lots of new ,aces between the two countries with respect to the two countries, in 1841. in the u k, we had a new prime minister, and a new foreign secretary. in the united states, we had the third american president in a single year. a new secretary of state, a new ambassador to great britain, who later became president of harvard university. and much later, gave that great two hour are just in gettysburg his 2efore lincoln gave hour gettysburg address. the fact that everybody was new on both sides of the aisle caused obvious problems because there were no personal relationships and habits to
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smooth over the rough patches, and to ease relationships. on the other hand, everything was new. and right, as we would take today, for a reset, as we did a couple of years ago with russia. before -- speaking of britain -- just before the creole sailed, 29-year-old charles dickens, the most widely popular writer in the english-speaking world, wrote to his publisher and said, you know, i think in early 1842, i will go visit the united states. how about that? let's look very briefly at the british bahamas. when the british navy caught illegal slave ships, after the banning of the international slave trade, these might be spanish ships going to cuba, portuguese ships going to
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brazil, they would bring them to the nearest british port and free the africans who had been captured as slaves. many of those were brought to the bahamas, to nassau. and to those free africans now, once they stepped on british soil, retained their african languages, their culture, their religion. they lived in ethnic groups largely from africa. etc.ongos, gradually4, britain abolished slavery and most of their colonies, including the bahamas. so that by 1838, all the slaves in the bahamas were freed. putting all this together, when the creole enter the harbor and nassau, you had a perfect -- in nassau, you had a perfect storm. you had severe british-u.s.
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tensions. you had a new president of uncertain status. they called him, your exigency -- your accidentcy. anything related to slavery was a tough sell. and in nassau, a huge percentage of the population were recently freed african and local slaves. to novembero back 9, 1841 in nassau. the first mate ran to the u.s. consular officer, whose name was john bacon, and reported what happened on the ship. murder. the slaves rebelled and they sliced the head off them. whou.s. consular officer went to see the governor general of the bahamas -- the governor general lesser francis copeland.
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who, as a young british army captain, had fun against the united states and canada during the war of 18 -- in canada during the war of 1812. it was his older brother who had authorized the burning of the white house in 1814. -- needless to say, the governor general of the bahamas did not have a great affection towards the united states. consular bacon asked them to prevent these american slaves to the allowed on tour. take the 19 were murderers and put them in jail. coburn was noncommittal. but he sent a regiment of west indian soldiers and 2 british magistrates on board the creole, and pretty soon, the soldiers
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took the 19 off and put them in jail. but from hog island came a huge flotilla of hundreds and hundreds of small boats. locals, little small -- sailboats. and surrounded the creole. and all those other slaves climbed overboard and got on them and moved into nassau. they vanished. all the slaves, all 135 slaves, except five, left. five elected to stand board. the u.s. consular officer bacon formally protested -- formally protested and demanded the return of the 19 slaves, but all those other slaves had vanished. on november 19, the creole sailed without its slaves to new orleans. and without the captain, he was so severely injured that he had to stay in nassau for a well.
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-- for a wild. help fromoburn sought london, from downing street. it took a little while, but at the very end of january, london wrote back to coburn and said, look, the 19 slaves charged with murder, they could be charged with murder, but since they are not british, and the ship is not british, and the murders did it take place in british waters, they can't be tried in a british court here in nassau. now, the united states, they could try these guys. but the united states has no extradition treaty with great britain, so we can't turn them over. 16, the british freed though slaves that have been held in jail -- those slaves that had been held in jail and they melted into society.
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the creole arrived in new orleans on november 2. needless to say, the city was in virtual for ames over this. -- and virtual flames over this -- in virtual flames over this. in congress, john quincy adams read a petition that said the war would be more just than the ward to keep america in bondage. later, adams' protege, a young congressman , joshua, he proposed
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resolution dealing with the creole issue. it was very clever. long resolution. the essence was this. there is no federal slavery. slavery is a state matter. ok. you can hear the southerners saying, good for you, it is a state matter, and the federal government can't tell us what to do. he went on to say, when a ship leaves a state and goes into international waters, the atlantic for example, the persons on board are no longer subject to the slave laws of that state. therefore, when the creole left virginia, virginia had no more jurisdiction over those slaves, and the persons on board simply return to their natural rights. clever,was doing, very
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he was making an indirect attack on the slave trade, using the creole as an example. remember, what i said, the biggest thing in slavery at that point was moving this mass redistribution of slaves from the upper south to the southwest . he was going after that. everybody.e for the next day, the house of representatives voted censure joshuato getting. it was the second time in history that a member of congress was censured. he got out of his desk at the house floor, walked down to john and left the desk house. he said goodbye formally to the speaker, etc.
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he went back to ohio, and within weeks, he was overwhelmingly reelected, and came back to congress. quite a story. it may, word reached washington that the british had freed those murderous slaves from jail and the south went berserk. remember, i mentioned charles dickens saying at the end of 1841 that he might visit the united states. he did. he arrived in boston in late january. this was a rock star at that time. he had dinners with everybody, every famous person. in new york, he met with former president van buren. in philadelphia, he met with edgar allan poe. he came to washington in march and was invited to private dinners at congress, the white house.
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andas about to head south henry clay took him aside and said, my boy, over this creole g, the south hates the british, i don't think it would be safe for you to go down there . so, charles dickens got the message and went west. if you read his book that he wrote about this, "the american notes," it is about his time in the very north and the west. by the way, he only praised, in his book, two americans, john quincy adams and josh were getting. -- joshua giddings. christmas eve, prime minister meets their young queen says, a third war
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with the united states is on the horizon. she said, oh my god, what can we do? remember afghanistan in the back of your minds. said, inister peele have an idea, i propose a special mission, and i think you ought to nominate alexander bearing of bearing brothers, lord ashburton, to come to the united states to represent great powers with full to do whatever he wants to settle all of these issues -- the borders, and the carolinas, and everything else. she says, that is a good deal, we will do it. ,lexander behring, as i said lord ashburn, and daniel webster were clients and lawyers for years, three years before he had come over to the u.k., he was
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invited to balls, etc. he arrives in annapolis early april. the queen had wanted him to deliver the message that this was great britain that the americans were dealing with. thatent him on a frigate was so large and needed a crew of 500 to manage it. the americans got the message. he brought with him servants, carriages, horses, wine, you name it. ashburton had asked webster, help me with housing, where should i live? lived righter, who at lafayette park, in a that is now the u.s. chamber of commerce said, 100 yards for me is a brand-new wonderful house, and
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you ought to lease that. that is not the parish house for st. john's episcopal church. if you want passe, you will see a little sign of side says, "ashburton house," it was convenient though ironically it was only about 50 feet from dolly madison's house. you recall, dolly madison was the first lady who had to escape the white house after the british burned it. the state department was next to the white house -- a tiny operation. ashburton negotiated. they had lavish dinners. by the end of june, ashburton aberdeen saying, this problem of the creole, unless be resolve it, will somehow think all of the other issues we have to deal with. finally, western ashburton put thether, in treaty form,
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issues except the creole. they agreed, for example, ashburton, webster, and funds to tyler hush soften up the people to agree to a new border. the americans got a little more than half, it was a good deal. .hey settled the border on the issue of the right to search, american vessels off the african coast, they had a nice resolution -- let's do joint patrols. they agreed to an extradition treaty. webster tried to get a provision in their that one of the extraditable offenses would be a revolt on board a ship. ashburton was too smart to be caught by that.
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mid, the exchange notes about the carolina affair, going over niagara falls, in which ashburton admitted that the british had violated u.s. territory, but he never formally accepted responsibility. all of the tough issues got settled except for the creole affair. can you imagine western ashburton in this kind of weather? in washington, in august, without air-conditioning trying to deal with this. agreed an exchange of notes. longer's notes was a lawyers brief on the creole matter beginning with, i understand that you are not empowered to deal with the creole issue, but he went on to explain the u.s. position on it, and twice use the term, officious interference, governor
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coburn's activities that he did not like. he stressed the importance of , and he askede lord ashburton, you know your government's policy, surely you can give instructions that there conduct thatitish would be out of conformity with the positions of the american government. responded on august 6 to said, i'm not empowered deal with his creole matter, but i can engage that instruction shall be given to the governors in the colonies on the southern borders of the united states that there should be no officious interference with american vessels driven by accident or violence into the ports.
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today, we would call this constructive ambiguity. that is the famous turn that henry kissinger use when nixon .pened china the logjam was broken. they signed the treaty of washington on august 9. it settled the boundary. senatese sent up to the for ratification. it was ratified on a saturday immediately with the largest majority of any senate ratification of a treaty until then. it is all done. let me mention, quickly, three epilogue events. one was an insurance case. when the creole arrived in new 1841,s in december of slave owners who had been outt enough to take i
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insurance on their property -- everyone has property insurance, human -- ppen to be the lawyer for the insurance companies, a young louisiana lawyer, i will come back to him if we have time later, an extraordinary figure. he was the lawyer for the insurance companies. he began by attacking the slave owners saying, look, the creole weren't armed, it's all your fault. the ultimate question was if the loss of property was due to the british authorities, which was covered by the policies or an insurrection of the slaves, which was not covered. a decision came out in march 1845, 100 50 pages, parts in latin, parts and friends, parts in english, and the card said
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that the slave -- court said that the slave insurrection caused the loss, therefore the insurance companies weren't liable, and the slave owners were not compensated for their loss. i should have added that the happened to have owned 140 slaves at that point. an second epilogue is altercation that took place in london in january 1855. the united states and great britain had a treaty to settle all claims between their two companies. tribunalational determined that the creole had the right to see help because they were in distress, the british had a right to keep the slaves until they were sent to the united states, and an obligation to protect the other
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slaves. therefore, the british violated international law and had to pay the american slave owners, about $20,000 per slave in today's terms. the last epilogue is a book -- oh, judah benjamin, i should have showed him. the early 1850's was a great time for i will missions literature. harry beecher stowe -- harriet beecher still wrote "tom's cabin." a slave." of s and, frederick douglass wrote his only book of fiction called ."he heroic slave this is his only work of fiction, and had it been set to
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music, it would have been a pacini opera. back story ofthe mass in washington that he made up, but it deals with washington's escape from slavery and virginia. he makes it to ohio and helps him move on to canada and freedom, which was a crime to assist a slave. he would return to virginia, and was caught. he was put on the creole and personally sailed into the .assau harbor and wins the message was virginia was great for the revolution -- it had great ideals, but that virginia is dying. proper idealswith is ohio, which happen to be the home of harriet beecher stowe
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and joshua giddings. to slaves,essage was right is on your side, and your leaders are worthy. to the whites in the united states, have courage to follow the nation's basic principles and help slaves lead themselves to freedom, as he did. whatever happened to mass in washington? in april 1842, when he stepped out of the jail in nassau, he stepped out of history. we have no idea what happened to him. let me take one other moment because i have been remiss in failing to express appreciation to the national archives here and the regional center in el paso, texas. manifestd for me the
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-- sorry, i don't have a photo, but it is in the book. the manifest of the creole, which shows mass in washington at age 25, 5'9", etc.. it is a remarkable document and archives. the archives. that is the story. thank you for listening. [applause] i welcome any questions, for which, moved to the microphones. all we are waiting, i will show -- i guess i'm not going to show. question.a you mentioned at 19, there was a gun. maybe it is in your book, it sounds like there was some type of investigation done to find there was a gun, people would
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have had to have been interviewed on both sides, i assume. anything you can talk about from that perspective, and what that might have led to, because slavery was still in place, to prevent something like that from happening again. ey: there was a gun and knifes. they misfired, they did not have ammunition, etc.. somehow, the slaves had smuggled on some weapons. in the frederick douglass, "the heroic slave," his white friend from ohio meets him just before he gets on the creole and flips him three knives. we don't know exactly how these slaves acquired weapons, but they had them, and they overpowered the crew
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immediately. after the settlement with the british, there were no more incidents like this. i'm sure, i can't prove this, but i'm sure that the maritime authorities and the slavers, the slave owners, made sure that all the slaves were checked before they got on board. there might have been armed guards that paid attention. >> when you attended law school, was this case covered, or is it something you research on your own? oh no, this is rarely covered. you can ask historians what they know about the creole, nobody knows about it. it is not taught anywhere. i should add, on your question
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about the investigation, when the british authorities in board, one set of those authorities were magistrates. they interviewed everybody on board. it was their report, from interviewing the slaves, that theyand the crew narrowed it down to these 19. actually, two died in prison from natural causes. in the end, 17 were freed. case inr the insurance the louisiana, all kinds of authorities came to louisiana for the discussion. ular officer came to
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new orleans. everybody was testifying on what happened. the facts were not clear. there were two different stories essentially. the shippers said, these awful british, they let the people go. the british were saying, come on, they do not want to sell back with all of these -- sail back with all of these plays on board. >> in the 1855 arbitration -- infuse me, perhaps i can just repeat the question. there you are. i'm side. the 1855 arbitration, where the british were ordered to pay, dipping in fact pay the compensation they were ordered to pay? mr. downey: yes. it was a three-member team, which was typical for claims settlement negotiation.
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umpire, the third guy, was actually an american citizen, but who lives in london, and guess who he worked for? baring brothers. he was a commercial guy, and i think that probably influenced him up there because if you are a commercial guide involved in international trade, you don't want funny things like this to happen. you want order and predictability. anyway, yes, they paid. there was actually a subsequent dispute that ended up in the u.s. supreme court because the slave owners had hired washington lobbyists to prosecute the claim with the british. the washington lobbyists wanted a piece of the settlement that the british made. they fought it to the supreme
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court. it was just ridiculous. >> thank you very much for the lovely speech. of an affair and , toham lincoln's time confederates were captured off the coast of cuba by the union army. seward thee to be for it or against. lincoln said, i cannot have two wars at one time. i wonder if you might have -- because you were talking about the brink of war -- whether you mention this at all? mr. downey: yes, i mention the affair and passing. the most interesting part, in a the key confederate
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captured on the trent, as it was ,eaded to england, was slidell who happen to be the law partner in new orleans of judah benjamin. linkagely, you had that . judah benjamin, by the way, went on to be a united states senator, and then was a senior officer in the confederacy. his pictures on the confederate two dollar bill. he was confederate secretary of state, secretary of war, and secretary general. when the civil war ended, he went south, got out, and made his way, of all places, to nassau and then made his way to liverpool where he became the lawyer.cessful english
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he wrote a famous book, logbook, , on sales. law book a law student today if they know him, they say, sure. no one knows he was an american who represented the insurance companies in the louisiana case and was the law partner of slidell, who was caught in the trent affair. any other questions? [applause] thank you. that, as we said earlier, don't forget, there is a book signing one floor up. we will see you there in just a few minutes.
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grandma lou and herbert hoover -- >> lou and herbert hoover came to be white house as successful archaeologist. lou harbour used her office to promote volunteerism and charity. their one term ended amongst public frustration. sunday on, the c-span's original series, "first ladies: influence an image." from martha washington to michelle obama, sunday at 8:00 eastern on american history tv on c-span 3. >> each week, american history
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america brings you archival films that help to tell the story of the 20th century. ♪ >> and dependents, missouri, home of former president johnson rain forspite steady sentimental visit. mr. johnson comes from kansas city to make the informal call 83.r. truman, who is now the two men chatted privately inside the truman home for about 10 minutes. the discussion was not disclosed. president johnson then left immediately for the return trip to the nations capital. mr. truman waves to the crowd and high spirits. the university of florida scene of an
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important conference of the department of agriculture of the united nations. for several days, and type refugees anti-castro ,laim that cuba abuses money and added that funds intended for agricultural research are used in turn for political purposes. the protest is orderly, but determined, as the exiles, many of them veterans of the bay of pigs, voice strong objection. ape cod hippies conduct in where all a body has to do is stand around, and he is automatically in the show. dress-upedelic murals anybody's epidermis, but there are certain technical problems when the artist is fronted with
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a ticklish situation. a gallant fighting ship, the aircraft carrier, gets a hero's welcome from her duty in vietnam. she comes home and stops in florida, before reaching her birthplace of virginia. the crewmen who disembark are the lucky ones. in tragic fire to the lives of 134 of the crew. the vivid memories of that forster fate momentarily those who are greeted by wives, children, sweethearts, and parents. it still there is the scars -- scars, a huge
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hole in the flight deck. the fire was the worst enable history. wasccurred just as the ship preparing to launch its aircraft against north vietnam. a warm welcome for the crewmen who tried to erase the horrors they have known in the nightmare of fire at sea. ♪ >> american history tv is featuring c-span's original series "first ladies: influence onimage," 8:00 eastern sunday nights for the rest the year. c-span produce the series in cooperation with the white house historical association. through conversation with experts, video

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